Vaccines work by imitating an infection and triggering the immune system to make white blood cells and antibodies to fight the infection. Currently, there are five different types of vaccines being tested in Phase 3 trials to see if they help prevent COVID-19: mRNA vaccines, non-replicating viral vector vaccines, inactivated vaccines, live attenuated vaccines, and protein subunit vaccine. The table below lists the vaccines currently being tested in Phase 3 studies and shows which type of vaccine they are.
Want to know more about how the different types of vaccines work?
- This 2-page flyer from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention provides information about the older types of vaccines.
- This 3-page paper from the journal Nature includes information about the newer vaccines.